HomeS.c. Definition Biology

S.c. Definition Biology

The natural sciences can be roughly divided into two main branches; These are the life sciences and the physical sciences. The life sciences are also known as biology, which is the study of living things. Physics has four divisions, namely: How can we conduct integrative biology in research and teaching? In terms of curricula, we can ensure that students are introduced very early to a broad science that focuses on biology by introducing organisms, but has a scope that relates to all elements of the hierarchy of biological organization and to other sciences and humanities. For example, a kindergarten that learns about the plants and animals that live in the schoolyard pond, a rice field or a garden near its home can participate in a discussion about the biology of organisms and their interactions with each other, the effects of climate, the social dimensions of food and water supply and dehydration, and the aesthetics of a frog song or a beautiful plant population. Education in subsequent years can be more fine, inclusive and synthetic, as different types of ideas, questions and problems – and how to deal with them – are taken into account (which could make the fundamentals and learning techniques more interesting). Through science, students learn critical thinking and positive skepticism, and they should engage in practical science as early as possible while remaining curious about the world around them. Maintaining critical thinking and skepticism is important at all levels of the scientific enterprise – professionals should not lose this skill. Why, then, does «integrative biology» become the label of choice for biology and medical research programs, universities and institutes, funding agency units, and non-governmental organization (NGO) programs? For some people, it`s just a label meant to replace names based on taxa that are now considered «old-fashioned,» an unfortunate opinion about the value of taxa. However, in the most progressive entities, the label has real meaning, as it reflects a continuous shift in the paradigms of research and education. Integrative biology – integrative science – links disciplines and functions within and between levels of biological organization and between different taxa over time, short (ecological or physiological) and long (evolutionary). Examples include the integration of biology and medicine sub-disciplines (e.g., Wake 1990, 1995, Wake 2004, Wainwright and Reilly 1994, Marden et al. 1998, Williams and Wagner 2000), but also for more inclusive integration (e.g., Murray 2000, Delneri et al. 2001, Barbault et al.

2003, Kafatos and Eisner 2004, NAS 2004, Liu 2005). Biology is derived from the ancient Greek words βίος; Romanized bíos means «life» and -λογία; Logía romanized (-logy) means «branch of study» or «to speak». [7] [8] Together they form the Greek word βιολογία; Romanized Biología means biology. Nevertheless, the term βιολογία as a whole did not exist in ancient Greek. The first to borrow it were the English and the French (biology). Reanalysable since the advent of the scientific era in combination with Bio + Logistics combination forms. [clarification needed] The second largest scale, cell biology, studies the structural and physiological properties of cells, including their internal behavior, interactions with other cells and with their environment. This occurs both at the microscopic and molecular levels, both for single-celled organisms such as bacteria and for the specialized cells of multicellular organisms such as humans. Understanding the structure and function of cells is fundamental to all biological sciences. The similarities and differences between cell types are particularly relevant to molecular biology.

Cell biology is the study of cells – the basic units of structure and function in living organisms. Cells were first observed in the 17th century when the compound microscope was invented. Prior to this time, the individual organism as a whole was studied in a field known as organism biology; This area of research remains an important part of the biological sciences. Population biology deals with groups or populations of organisms that inhabit a particular area or region. At this level, studies are included on the roles played by certain species of plants and animals in the complex and self-sufficient interactions between the living and non-living worlds, as well as studies on the built-in controls that naturally maintain these relationships. These broad levels – molecules, cells, whole organisms and populations – can be subdivided for studies, leading to specializations such as morphology, taxonomy, biophysics, biochemistry, genetics, epigenetics and ecology. One area of biology may be particularly concerned with the study of a type of living thing – for example, the study of birds in ornithology, the study of fish in ichthyology or the study of microorganisms in microbiology. An example of integration efforts that has a different label is «systems biology.» Systems biology shares the problem of definition with integrative biology – as Henry (2003) noted, it also means «different things for different people».

She defines it as an «integrative approach in which scientists explore pathways and networks that touch all areas of biology, including drug discovery» (Henry 2003). As the people she quotes report, systems biology is not new, but the field benefits from new experimental tools and the realization that «network analysis, regulation and operation from a global systems perspective» can now be studied using computer tools and computer-generated models. One scientist she quotes notes that systems biology «doesn`t exist,» but «that`s what humans have always done in biology, which is the physiology of cells.» Different approaches to systems biology stimulate not only basic research, but also considerable research and funding in medicine and biotechnology (see, for example, Kitano 2001, Alberghina and Westerhoff 2005, Klipp et al. 2005, Alon 2006, Palsson 2006). In my view, systems biology is a form of the broader concept and practice of integrative biology, characterized by the «systems approach» that is part of integrative biology but is far from complete. Integrative biology includes systems biology for the purposes of this discussion. As a field of science, biology helps us understand the living world and how its many species (including humans) function, evolve, and interact. Advances in medicine, agriculture, biotechnology and many other areas of biology have improved the quality of life.